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   Opisanie UNIX  ! Nach.svedeniya
                  ! Bolee podrobnye
                  ! YAzyk SHELL
                  ! O terminalah
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       Perenaznachenie sistemnyh potokov
file   Sistemnyj vyvod
2>      Sistemnyj protokol 2>>file - dopisyvat' v konec fajla
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Prostoe imya fajla   <=14 simvolov

rk  [file]      tekstovyj redaktor

cd  dire     - perejti v direktoriyu dire
cd  ../      - prijti v predydushchuyu direktoriyu
cd           - prijti v svoyu direktoriyu
pwd   - poluchit' imya tekushchej direktorii
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who -a  kto v sisteme
tty     imya terminala
date    sistemnaya data
du [-s] pamyat', zanyataya direktoriej (i poddirektoriyami) v Kb
df      svobodnaya pamyat' na diskah, v Kb
env     znachenie peremennyh okruzheniya
export TERM eksportirovat' peremennuyu TERM v okruzhenie
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mail    poslat' pol'zovatelyu pochtu. Prorochitat' prishedshuyu pochtu.
write logname poslat' pol'zovatelyu na terminal.
mesg n  zapretit' "zvonit'" na svoj terminal.
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ps  -ef        Informaciya o sostoyanii processov
kill [-9] 2745 Avarijnoe zavershenie processa  2745

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ls    - raspechatat' informaciyu o fajlah ili direktoriyah  sm ls.txt
ls -RadCxmnlogrtucpFbqisf [files ...]
       -l polnaya informaciya
       -a imena vseh fajlov
       -s razmer
       -m Vyvod cherez zapyatuyu.
       -x v 4 kolonki
       -r sortirovat' v obratnom poryadke
       -t sortirovat' po vremeni modifikacii
       -u sortirovat' po vremeni dostupa
       -d ne vyvodit' dlya kataloga ego soderzhimoe
       -f podkatologi
       -R vyvodit' soderzhanie poddirektorij
       -p posle katalogov risovat' /

find / -name *flop* -print      najti polnoe imya fajla
find /udd /util -name ccp    -print
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cat file1 ... [>file] - slit' i vyvesti fajly na standartnyj vyvod

cp  file1 file2    kopirovat' fajl
cp  file1 dire2    kopirovat' fajl v direktoriyu
find . -print|cpio -pdmv katalog        kopirovat' direktoriyu s soderzhimym

echo   >file     - sozdat' pustoj fajl
mkdir dire       - sozdat' direktoriyu

mv  file1 file2  - pereimenovat'  fajl
mv  file1 dire2  - peremestit'  fajly
/usr/lib/mv_dir  - pereimenovanie direktorij
rmdir -r dire    - udalit' direktoriyu vmeste s soderzhimym
rm -i fajly      - udalenie s podtverzhdeniem
rm -f fajly      - bezuslovnoe udalenie
bson chown moshkow '*' '.*' Izmenenie vladel'ca u vseh fajlov
chown moshkow file          Izmenenie vladel'ca fajla
chgrp 90      file          Izmenenie gruppy u fajla
chmod [ugo]      [+ -]      [rwxs]   file    Izmenenie prav dostupa
     []  
chmod  go+rw ,u+rwxs max/*

echo  [file] - vyvesti argumenty na standartnyj vyvod
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diff    Sravnit' dva fajla.
grep    Najti v ukazannom fajle (fajlah) zadannyj shablon.
nohup   Zapustit' vypolnenie komandy v fonovom rezhime.
pg      Vyvesti, postranichno, na terminal.
uname   Vyvesti imya tekushchej sistemy UNI.
uucp    Pereslat' ukazannyj fajl na druguyu sistemu UNIX.
uuname  Vyvesti spisok udalennyh  sistem  UNIX.
uupick  Vypolnit' poisk fajlov, peredannyh pol'zovatelyu  s  po-
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cc [2>>file]   file.c [-lcurses]  kompilirovat' fajl na Si
   [oshibki v nego zhe] [biblioteka s "TTDIO"]

cb [-s] file.c >file1.c   ukrashatel' Si programm [v stile knizhki]

ctrace file.c >file2.c    poluchit' ottrassirovannuyu programmu na Si
??? file.bld ?  redaktor svyazej
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pack     -  programma upakovki fajla v dvoichnom kode (szhatie fajla)
pcat .z  -  programma chteniya upakovannogo fajla
upack .z -  programma raspakovki fajla
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formatflop      formatirovat' flopidisk
pered formatirovaniem dos diskety nel'zya govorit' flon! Inache vynut', potom vstavit'.

flon            podklyuchit' flopidisk v direktoriyu /mnt
floff           otklyuchit' flopidisk
/etc/fsck -y /dev/dsk/fd  - reanimaciya diskety
cpp -a file /dos   skopirovat' fajl na flopidisk v formate DOS
ccp -A /dos file   prochitat' fajl v formate DOS s flopidiska
ls /dos

cleall          pochistit' disk, dolbanuv lishnie fajly
bson mtobl -e&  prochistit' lentu
copall          zamotat' /udd na magnitnuyu lentu
restall         vosstanovit' dannye s lenty v tekushchuyu direktoriyu

Kopirovanie s lenty     dd if=/dev/mt bs=256k | cpio -idmvu
zamotat' fajly na lentu
find /udd /etc/passwd.old -print | cpio -ovB > /dev/rmt
cpio -idmvB [file-shablon] < /dev/rmt
perepisat' s lenty v tekushchuyu direktoriyu
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su [-] monah   stat' drugim pol'zovatelem [i s ego okruzheniem]
bson       stat' superpol'zovatelem
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    KOMANDNYJ YAZYK SHELL

case $a in *.out) rm $a ;; shablon ) komandy ;; . . . esac pozicionnye peremennye: $@ $1 $2 ... $* "$1 $2 ..." $# kolichestvo pozicionnyh parametrov (desyatichnoe) $- flagi, ukazannye pri zapuske shella ili komandoj set $? desyatichnyj kod, vozvrashchennyj predydushchej komandoj $$ nomer tekushchego processa $! nomer poslednego asinhronnogo processa `komanda` podstavit' v stroku vyvod komandy. i=25 while [ $i -lt 100 ] do # telo cikla done Kak vernut' fajl v man formate v ascii. I udalit' v nem vse simvoly "_" #nroff -man manl/waisindex.l | sed -e 's/_//g' > waisindex.txt VI prostejshie komandy /usr/lib/assist/lib/scripts CURSOR MOVING COMMANDS ADDING TEXT COMMANDS SPACE .. forward one character i ..... insert text to cursor left ... backward one character a ..... add text to cursor right j ...... jump-down one line o ..... open line below current line k ...... kick-up one line O ..... open line above current line w ...... word forward b ...... backward-word ... erase characters in input mode 6k ..... move down 6 lines .. Stop inputting text; return to 4b ..... move back 4 words command level of vi DELETING COMMANDS WRITING AND QUITTING x ...... x-out character :w ... save (write) changes dw ..... delete word :q ... quit vi dd ..... delete entire line :q! .. quit vi without saving the 3x ..... delete (x-out) 3 chars changes made since the last 6dw .... delete 6 words write command 4dd .... delete 4 lines SETTING vi OPTIONS UNDO COMMAND :set nu ..... line numbering on u ...... undo last editing change :set nonu ... line numbering off u ...... redo (undo last undo) :set smd .... show mode option on y7y zapomnit' sem' strok p vspomnit'

Last-modified: Tue, 25 Nov 1997 07:07:42 GMT
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