\batchmode \hsize=17cm \hoffset=-0.54cm \voffset=-0.54cm \vsize=9.9in \footline={} \def\rhead{} \def\leftheadline{ \hbox to \hsize{\vbox to 10 pt {}% \llap{\tenbf\folio\kern 1pc}\tenit\rhead\hfil } } \def\rightheadline{ \hbox to \hsize{\vbox to 10 pt {}% \tenit\hfil\rhead\rlap{\kern 1pc\tenbf\folio} } } \def\makeheadline{ \vbox to 0pt{\vskip-22.5pt\ifodd\pageno\rightheadline\else\leftheadline\fi\vss} \nointerlineskip } \def\heading#1{ { \bf\let\nl=\par % \tolerance=10000 \bigskip \hyphenpenalty=10000 \advance\leftskip by 0pt plus 1fill \advance\rightskip by 0pt plus 1fill \narrower \uppercase{#1} \par \nobreak\bigskip } } \def\emph#1{{\it #1\/}} \newif\ifchapno \chapnofalse \newcount\chapno \chapno=0 \newcount\subchno \newcount\subsubchno \newcount\footno \newcount\excerno \excerno=0 \def\chapter#1{\penalty-250 \advance\chapno by 1 \subchno=0 \footno=1 \excerno=1 \bigskip\noindent \centerline{\bf\ifchapno\the\chapno.~\fi#1}\nobreak\medskip\nobreak } \def\subchap#1{\medskip \advance\subchno by 1 \subsubchno=0 \centerline{{\bf\ifchapno\the\chapno.\the\subchno.~\fi#1}}\nobreak\smallskip\nobreak } \def\subsubchap#1{\medskip \advance\subsubchno by 1 \ifchapno\centerline{{\bf\the\chapno.\the\subchno.\the\subsubchno.~#1}}\nobreak\smallskip% \else{\bf#1 }\fi% } \def\boxit#1{\vbox{\hrule\hbox{\vrule\kern 0pt \vbox{\kern 0pt #1 \kern 0pt}\kern 0pt\vrule}\hrule}} \def\bskip{\hskip 0.5em} \widowpenalty=10000 \clubpenalty=10000 \def\frac#1/#2{\leavevmode\kern.1em \raise.5ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 #1}\kern-.1em /\kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{\the\scriptfont0 #2}} \def\N{\char252\relax} \def\dfn#1{{\it#1}} \def\cP{{\cal P}} \def\cJ{{\cal J}} \def\nvec#1{({#1}_1,{#1}_2, \ldots, {#1}_n)} \def\fmod#1{\;({\rm mod}\,\,#1)} %% math \def\perm#1#2{{\left(#1\atop#2\right)}} \def\stir#1#2{{\left[#1\atop#2\right]}} \def\Stir#1#2{{\left\{#1\atop#2\right\}}} \def\stirstir#1#2{{\left[\left[#1\atop#2\right]\right]}} \def\eul#1#2{{\left\langle#1\atop#2\right\rangle}} \def\Eul#1#2{{\left\langle\left\langle#1\atop#2\right\rangle\right\rangle}} \def\floor#1{{\left\lfloor#1\right\rfloor}} \def\ceil#1{{\left\lceil#1\right\rceil}} \def\abs#1{{\vert #1\vert}} \def\Abs#1{{\left\Vert #1\right\Vert}} %% \catcode@=11 \def\simlt{\mathrel{\mathpalette\@versim{<}}} % "<" over \sim \def\@versim#1#2{\lower.5\p@\vbox{\baselineskip\z@skip\lineskip-.5\p@ \ialign{$\m@th#1\hfil##\hfil$\crcr#2\crcr\sim\crcr}}} \catcode@=12 %% \def\{{\ifmmode\lbrace\else{\tt\char"7B\relax}\fi} \def\}{\ifmmode\rbrace\else{\tt\char"7D\relax}\fi} \def\true{{\it true}} \def\GE{$\ge$} \def\LE{$\le$} \def\NE{\ifmmode\not=\else$\not=$\fi} \def\TO{\ifmmode\to\else$\to$\fi} \def\NULL{\ifmmode\Lambda\else$\Lambda$\fi} \def\note#1#2{\footnote{$^\the\footno$}{#2}\global\advance\footno by 1} \def\cite{\bgroup\medskip\narrower} \def\endcite{\par\medskip\egroup} \def\epigraph#1\signed#2\par{\let\nl=\par\hbox to \hsize{\hfill\vbox{{\divide\hsize by 2#1\par}}}% \hbox to \hsize{\hfill\vbox{{\divide\hsize by 2#2\par}}}\bigskip} \def\bsl{\ifmmode\backslash\else{\tt\char\\}\fi} \newcount\itemcnt \def\enumerate{% \bgroup\itemcnt=1\medskip\narrower \def\li{\item{\the\itemcnt)~}\advance\itemcnt by 1} } \def\enumend{\medskip\egroup} \def\itemize{% \bgroup\medskip\narrower \def\li{\item{$\bullet$}} } \def\itemend{\medskip\egroup} \def\ctable#1{\vbox{\halign{#1}}} \newbox\tbox \newdimen\tdim \def\htable#1#2#3{{\let\nl=\par \setbox\tbox\vbox{\halign{#3}}\setbox254\hbox{#2} \ifdim\wd\tbox>\wd254\tdim=\wd\tbox\else\tdim=\wd254\fi $$\vbox{\hbox to\tdim{\hfill#1}\hbox to\tdim{\hfill#2\hfill} \hbox to\tdim{\hfill\box\tbox\hfill}}$$% }} \def\DIV{\mathbin{{\rm DIV}}} \def\MOD{\mathbin{{\rm MOD}}} \def\ror{\mathbin{{\rm ÈËÈ}}} \def\rand{\mathbin{{\rm È}}} \def\UDC#1{\leftline{óäê #1}} \def\btable#1{{\offinterlineskip\boxit{\vbox{\halign{#1}}}}} \def\rrq{"} \def\rlq{"} \def\excercises{\bigskip\centerline{óÏÐÀÆÍÅÍÈß}\medskip\global\excerno=1} \def\ex[#1]#2\par{\item{\the\excerno.}[#1]#2\par\global\advance\excerno by 1} \def\rex[#1]#2\par{\item{\btr\the\excerno.}[#1]#2\par\global\advance\excerno by 1} \def\exhead(#1){{\sl(#1)\/}} \def\btr{{\tt >}} \def\rem#1{\qquad\hbox{#1}} \def\MIX{{\tt MIX}} \def\MIXAL{{\tt MIXAL}} \def\MIXTEC{{\tt MIXTEC}} \def\MIXT{{\tt MIXT}} \def\strong#1{{\bf #1}} \def\mean{\mathop{\rm mean}\nolimits} \def\var{\mathop{\rm var}\nolimits} \def\covar{\mathop{\rm covar}\nolimits} \def\ave{\mathop{\rm ave}\nolimits} \def\dev{\mathop{\rm dev}\nolimits} \def\ctg{\mathop{\rm ctg}\nolimits} \def\sign{\mathop{\rm sign}\nolimits} \def\T{\mathbin{\top}} \def\set#1{\{\, #1\,\}} \def\endmark{\vrule depth 0pt height 10 pt width 0.5em} %% algorithm definition \newcount\stepno \def\alg #1.(#2){\medskip\gdef\alglettr{#1}{\bf àËÃÎÐÈÒÌ #1. }{\sl(#2)\/ }% \global\stepno=1} \def\st{\item{\alglettr\the\stepno\global\advance\stepno by 1}} \def\asg{\ifmmode\leftarrow\else$\leftarrow$\fi} \def\rasg{\ifmmode\rightarrow\else$\rightarrow$\fi} \def\xchg{\ifmmode\leftrightarrow\else$\leftrightarrow$\fi} \def\Asg{\ifmmode\Leftarrow\else$\Leftarrow$\fi} \def\To{\ifmmode\Rightarrow\else$\Rightarrow$\fi} \def\stp#1{{\bf\alglettr#1}} \def\algend{\endmark\medskip} %% program definition \newcount\prgstepno \def\prog #1.(#2){\medskip\gdef\prglettr{#1}{\bf ïÐÎÃÐÀÌÌÀ #1. }{\sl(#2)\/ }% \global\prgstepno=1} \def\pst{\item{\prglettr\the\stepno\global\advance\prgstepno by 1}} \def\progend{\endmark\medskip} %% {\obeyspaces\gdef {\ }} \catcode\|=\active \def\code{\nobreak\medskip\bgroup\let\par=\cr\obeylines% % --- \def|{{\tt\char\|}}% \halign\bgroup\tt##\bskip&\tt##\bskip&\tt##\bskip&\hfill$##$\hfill&\bskip##\hfill\cr} \def\endcode{\egroup\egroup\medbreak\noindent} \def\twocols{\noalign\bgroup% \halign\bgroup\tt##\bskip&\tt##\bskip&\tt##\bskip&\tt##\bskip&\tt##\bskip&\tt##\bskip&\hfill$##$\hfill&\bskip##\hfill\cr} \def\endtwocols{\egroup\egroup} \def|{\bgroup\tt\def|{\egroup}} \def\bdispl{\bgroup$$\vbox\bgroup\obeylines} \def\edispl{\egroup$$\egroup} \def\mixcode{\bgroup\let\par=\cr\obeylines% \vbox\bgroup\halign\bgroup\tt##\bskip&\tt##\bskip&\bskip##\hfill\cr} \def\endmixcode{\egroup\egroup\egroup} %% %% \def\picture#1{$${\hbox{\narrower\vtop{Picture: #1\par}}}$$} %%% \def\section#1.{\smallskip{\bf#1.}} \def\qsection#1?{\smallskip{\bf#1?}} %%% \def\proof{\medskip{\sl äÎÊÀÇÀÒÅËÜÑÒÂÎ }} \def\proofend{\endmark\medskip} \def\eproofend{\medskip} \def\leaf#1{\hbox{\vbox{\hrule\hbox{\vrule\kern1pt\hbox{#1}\kern1pt\vrule}\hrule}}} \def\node#1{\hbox{$(#1)$}} \def\elnode#1{\hbox{$<#1>$}} \def\]{\leavevmode\hbox{\tt\char\ }} \def\roundit#1{(#1)} \def\<#1>{\left\langle#1\right\rangle} \def\upup{\mathop{\rm upup}\nolimits} \def\dndn{\mathop{\rm dndn}\nolimits} \def\lflf{\mathop{\rm lflf}\nolimits} \def\eqalignrem#1{\null\,\vcenter{\openup1\jot \halign{\strut\hfil$\displaystyle{##}$&$\displaystyle{{}##}$\hfil&$\displaystyle{{}\rem{##}}$\hfil \crcr#1\crcr}}\,} \def\displaynarrow#1{\null\,\vcenter{\openup1\jot \halign{$\hfil\displaystyle##\hfil$\crcr #1\crcr}}} \def\eqalignter#1{\null\,\vcenter{\openup1\jot \halign{\strut\hfil$\displaystyle{##}$&$\displaystyle{{}##}$\hfil&$\displaystyle{{}##}$\hfil \crcr#1\crcr}}\,} %%% \def\descrtable#1{ \setbox\tbox\vbox{\halign{##&\hbox to 0pt{\hss ## \hss}\cr#1}} \vbox{\halign{##\hfil&\vtop{\advance\hsize by -\wd\tbox\noindent ##}\cr #1}} } \def\descralign#1{ \setbox\tbox\vbox{\halign{$\displaystyle{##{}}$&\hbox to 0pt{\hss ## \hss}\cr#1}} \vbox{\halign{\strut\hfil$\displaystyle{##{}}$&\vtop{\advance\hsize by -\wd\tbox\noindent ##}\cr #1}} } %%% \newbox\cellbox \newdimen\cellwd \def\cell#1{\strut\bskip#1\hfil\bskip} \def\measurecell#1{\setbox\cellbox=\hbox{\cell{#1}}\ifnum\wd\cellbox>\cellwd\global\cellwd=\wd\cellbox\else\relax\fi} \def\tblout#1{\vcenter{\halign{\vrule\vbox{\hbox to\cellwd{\cell{##}}\hrule}\vrule&&\vbox{\hbox to\cellwd{\cell{##}}\hrule}\vrule\cr \noalign{\hrule} #1% }}} \def\tableau#1{ \offinterlineskip\cellwd=0pt \setbox\tbox=\vbox{\halign{\vrule\measurecell{##}\vrule&&\measurecell{##}\vrule\cr#1}} \ifmmode\tblout{#1}\else$\displaystyle\tblout{#1}$\fi } % \def\revtblout#1{\vcenter{\halign{\vrule\vbox{\hrule\hbox to\cellwd{\cell{##}}}\vrule&&\vbox{\hrule\hbox to\cellwd{\cell{##}}}\vrule\cr #1% \noalign{\hrule} }}} \def\revtableau#1{ \offinterlineskip\cellwd=0pt \setbox\tbox=\vbox{\halign{\vrule\measurecell{##}\vrule&&\measurecell{##}\vrule\cr#1}} \ifmmode\revtblout{#1}\else$\displaystyle\revtblout{#1}$\fi }