Subject: rec.skydiving UK FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
 Date:    23 Sep 1997
 From:    peteshew@cix.compulink.co.uk ("Pete Shew")
 Newsgroups: rec.skydiving, news.answers, rec.answers

 Archive-name:  sports/skydiving/uk-faq
 Last-modified: 1997/8/04
 Version: 10

[Changes since last version - Jul 1997
        1. Some DZ web sites added


This posting constitutes a complement to the Rec.Skydiving F.A.Q. with
specific reference to the pursuit of the sport in the United Kingdom.
Its intended audience is those resident in, or planning to visit, the

[HOT NEWS - now in HTML at http://www.shew.clara.net/faquk.htm]

Additions, corrections, or suggestions can be posted or emailed to the
current maintainer, Pete Shew, pete@remove_this_bit@shew.clara.net.

NOTE: BPA-OM refers to the British Parachute Association Operations
Manual 1984 (Second re-write February 1996).

Rec.skydiving has regular questions along the lines of "If I go to the
USA to take an AFF course, will I be able to jump when I return to the
UK?", and "I'm planning to come to the UK for a few days, where can I
jump and what documents do I need?". This FAQ attempts to answer some
of these questions. Please read to see if your question can be answered
before posting a question to rec.skydiving.

If you cant find the answer here, then please let me know the question
AND answer, when you get it, for possible inclusion in a later version.

I have arranged this FAQ into the following sections:

-.      The British training systems and how they differ from the US

-.      British medical and reserve packing requirements

-.      Requirements for UK jumpers abroad and foreign jumpers in the UK.

-.      British Parachute Association details

-.      British Drop Zone listing.

-.      Disclaimer




Training is carried out at parachuting clubs which are usually run
under the auspices of the British Parachute Association, although there
are a few exceptions. Before being accepted on a course you will have
to provide evidence of fitness to parachute - either a self declaration,
or if over 40, a doctors medical certificate.

The BPA qualifies parachutists according to a category system. The
significant levels are:

Cat 8 - qualified as a parachutist. Restricted formation skydiving,
restricted weather conditions, can use throw away pilot chute, must
wear a Protec helmet.

Cat 9 - some FS and weather restrictions lifted.

Cat 10 - all FS and weather restrictions lifted.

In addition there are Fdration Aronautique Internationale (FAI)
certificates of which the only significant ones are:

FAI C licence - Cat 10 and 50 jumps and cleared for spotting.
Permitted to do certain demo jumps, may be jumpmaster.

FAI D licence - Cat 10 and 200 jumps. May wear a frappe hat.
This is the ultimate qualification unless instructor or rigger
qualification is sought.

This is available at most Drop Zones in the UK now, and has totally
replaced rounds at a large number.

This system uses the modern ram air or "square" sports parachute from
the first jump. The square parachute has a higher forward speed, may
be jumped in higher wind conditions (giving a significantly higher
number of jumpable days) and a potentially much more gentle landing
than the traditional, military style round parachute

The student first uses a Static Line square parachute that is opened
automatically on leaving the aircraft by means of the "static line"
attached to a strong point within the aircraft. The student also
has a piggyback mounted reserve parachute and an Automatic Activation
Device (AAD) which will attempt to deploy the reserve if conditions
merit it.

During progression, the student with move on to a ripcord deployed
version of the same equipment. The ripcord may be mounted on the
legstrap or the bottom of the container - it is not usually possible
for a student to change between equipment with different ripcord
locations, so moving between DZs may be difficult.

The progression system requires the student to demonstrate over a
series of jumps, stability and ability to pull a dummy ripcord handle
before progressing to freefall. A further series of jumps incorporating
increasing freefall delays and showing control by performing turns,
back loops and tracks leads to the Category 8 qualification dive of a
half series. That is, a dive exit, back loop, alternate 360 degree
turns, a short track and wave off, usually from 8000ft.

After achieving Cat 8 the parachutist may then convert from ripcord
to a throw away pilot chute. This must be on kit fitted with an
Automatic Activation Device (AAD).

The absolute minimum number of jumps is 17 or 18 depending on how the
manual is interpreted, but expect a good progression to take less than
30 jumps. A slow one may take 50 or 60 jumps.

A variation of the RAPS progression allows the student who has reached
Category 5 to transfer to the AFF system at Level 3. (This could reduce
the cost of AFF by avoiding the expensive early AFF jumps with two

Still in common use in the UK is the static line round parachute
course. This is largely used on "charity farms" where the majority of
first time jumpers are doing charity associated jumping and are
unlikely to stay in the sport.

This is the traditional first introduction to parachuting and uses a
round parachute which is automatically opened when the student leaves
the plane - just like in the war movies. The round can be steered and
has a forward speed of five to eight m.p.h., and is an extremely safe
and reliable piece of kit. The student will also have a belly mounted
reserve parachute.

The progression system requires the student to demonstrate over a
series of jumps, stability and ability to pull a dummy ripcord handle
before progressing to freefall. A further series of jumps incorporating
increasing freefall delays and showing control by performing turns,
back loops and tracks leads to the Category 8 qualification dive of a
half series. That is, a dive exit, back loop, alternate 360 degree
turns, a short track and wave off, usually from 8000ft.

The student may convert to a RAPS canopy at any time during the
progression subject to approval of the Club Chief Instructor (CCI).
No progression may take place for at least the first two jumps. The
conversion may be left until after Cat 8.

After Cat 8 (and conversion to RAPS kit if necessary) the parachutist
may then convert to a throw away pilot chute. This must be on kit
fitted with an Automatic Activation Device (AAD).

The absolute minimum number of jumps is 17 or 18 depending on how the
manual is interpreted, but expect a good progression to take less than
30 jumps, plus conversion jumps (two lots).

AFF or Accelerated Free Fall takes the student to Cat. 8 in just eight
training jumps plus ten consolidation jumps if all goes well. The
equipment used is a ripcord deployed ram air parachute with AAD like
the RAPS kit.

All training jumps except the last are from at least 10000 feet, and
the first three are with two instructors holding the student and
performing in-air coaching. A major part of AFF is the pre jump
briefing, and the post jump debrief, many centres use air to air video
to supplement the training and to review the jump.

The seventh training jump is the same half series that the category
jumpers perform. The final jump in the training is a hop and pop from
around 5000ft to simulate aircraft emergency bale out and give
experience of subterminal deployment. NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN AFF

Following the hop and pop, ten consolidation jumps must be made at an
approved AFF club before Cat 8 is awarded. NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN AFF
REQUIREMENT IN THE USA. Conversion to throw away pilot chute
deployment may be carried out during the consolidation.

This is the most likely cause for problems with UK students going to
the USA to do AFF courses. Unless they use BPA approved instructors
they may have problems when returning to the UK. I dont have any
general guidelines, but I am aware of cases where the student has had
to repeat the half series jump. As far as I am aware, the student will
always have to do the hop and pop and the ten consolidation jumps.

I remember one case (a few years ago) where someone returned after
doing AFF in Florida and a number of FS jumps, and they were asked to
return to the category system by their home DZ!

The UK student should also be careful of cheap AFF courses offered at
boogies and DZs in continental Europe - their rules may be different
and you may have to repeat some of the course back in the UK.

[This is an area in which I need more information and case histories.
I will also try to tie down a few CCIs].

Of course, there will be no problems with AFFs achieved outside the UK
if the instructors are current BPA AFF instructors. This is the case
in Skydive Sebastian in Florida, and many UK instructors offer AFF
courses in France and Spain.

The minimum number of jumps is 18  including consolidation and
conversion, and is unlikely to be much more.

The WARP system is the usual method of progression to Cat 10.
This is identical to the US WARP system, so no problems should be
encountered. The old BPA progression system (4 point 4 way) still
exists but is out of favour. Skydive University training is also
now acceptable.



As of the 14th October 1996, the requirements are that a parachutist
on reaching 40 or first starting to parachute over 40 requires a
medical certificate endorsed and stamped by a medical doctor.

Subsequently, and up to the ago of fifty, an annual self certification
is required. Beyond the age of fifty, a tri-annual medical certificate
endorsed and stamped by a medical doctor is required, with self
certification for each of the intermediate years.

In The UK, reserves must be inspected and repacked at least every six
months. This must be carried out by a person authorised rto pack that
specific reserve/container/AAD combination.

There is still a deal of confusion over the qualifications for
repacking reserves. My understanding is the following order of

> Rigger examiner, advanced  rigger, rigger
all may assemble and pack any reserve into any container with any
AAD provided that they have the relevant manuals and safety notices
to hand. Qualified riggers may also perform remedial work and AAD

> Advanced packers
may assemble and pack any reserve into any container with any AAD
provided that they have the relevant manuals and safety notices to
hand. Remedial work is restricted  - my guess is that if can be called
assembly it is OK, if it is installation it is not OK. Fitting a Cypres
to a "Cypres ready" conatiner is acceptable - installing the Cypres
pocket is not.

> Holders of advanced packing tickets
may assemble and pack reserves/container/AAD combinations that are
specifically endorsed on their advanced packing certificate, provided
that they have the relevant manuals and safety notices to hand.
Remedial work is restricted  - my guess is that if can be called
assembly it is OK, if it is installation it is not OK. Fitting a
Cypres to a "Cypres ready" conatiner is acceptable - installing
the Cypres pocket is not.

It is no longer possible to obtain an advanced packing certificate
as the Advanced Packer qualification has superceded it, but it is
still possible to get additional endorsements on an existing certificate.

> Holders of packing certificates endorsed for round reserves
may pack round reserves. Not many of these left - I hope.

> Instructors
may pack round reserves - this is another hang over from the dark ages!



Usually your current documentation is sufficient. Most countries will
respect your reserve packing (but I think the US may demand that your
reserve repack is less than 4 months old - the UK cycle is 6 monthly).
The BPA third party insurance is NOT valid in North America, so USPA
membership or equivalent may be required. Medical cover is strongly
recommended when jumping abroad - make sure you have your form E111
when jumping in the European Union.

BPA-OM Section 6. EQUIPMENT, Para 8.5 Reserve parachutes that have been
packed in a foreign country, in a manner acceptable to the parachuting
organisation in that country, may be jumped at a BPA club for up to 120
days from the date of that packing.

BPA-OM Section 11 MEDICAL, Para 2.6 Foreign Parachutists. A Parachutist
from a foreign country may parachute at a BPA club if he/she fulfills
the medical requirements of that parachutist's own country.

BPA-OM Section 12 DOCUMENTATION Para 1.1 All Parachutists, riggers,
pilots, judges and DZ controllers must be current members of the
British Parachute Association.

In general, foreign parachutists have no problems jumping in the UK -
just be sure to bring all your documents. Note that headgear, an
altimeter and a knife are mandatory in the UK



[This is the major parachuting authority in the UK. It is now
recognised by the British Civilian Aviation Authority (CAA) as an
Approved Organisation (28 Mar 1996), and is deputised to handle certain
matters on behalf the CAA. I am not certain whether this extends to
the regulation of non-BPA parachuting centres or whether they are still
answerable directly to the CAA.]

        British Parachute Association,
         Wharf Way,
          Glen Parva,
           Leicester   LE2 9TF

        Tel: 0116 278 5271        Fax: 0116 247 7662

    BPA Chairman        Lofty Thomas
    BPA Vice Chairman   Phil Gibbs
    Council members     Chris Allen, Paul Applegate, Steve Apps,
                        Tye Boughen, Peter Carroll, Dave Emerson,
                        Phil Gibbs, Steven Hoy, Graham Liggins,
                        Ian Marshall, Michael Matthews,
                        Charles Ross, John Saunders, John Smyth,
                        Lofty Thomas

Magazine:   Sports Parachutist
            3 Burton Street
            PE1 5HA

            Tel/Fax:    01733 755860
            email:      sportpara@aol.com
            Ed:         Lesley Gale



The information in this section bears a surprising resemblance to the
listing published in the BPA magazine Sports Parachutist.

Army Parachute Association
The Commandant, JSPC  (Joint Services Parachute Club)
Airfield Camp
Wilts   SP4 9SF
Tel: Bulford Camp 01980 33371 ext: (Commandant) 8245
                                   (Chief Instructor) 8229
                                   (Staff) 8277

[Usually known just as Netheravon, this is the largest of the military
drop zones. It is open to the public, and has instruction in AFF, RAPS,
S/L rounds, WARP etc. A couple of Islanders (one a turbine) and a
Short's Skyliner]

Black Knights Parachute Centre
Bob Parry,
Patty's Farm,
Hilliam Lane,
Cockerham Nr Lancaster
Tel: 01524 791820 (Weekend)  0151 924 5560 (Midweek)

Week-end and Bank Holiday centre. 1st jump S/L courses. Radios and
Aeroconicals. SL and FF progression to category 10. WARP, RW, and CRW
instruction. Tandems. Air-to-air video available. Cessna 185 (in
flight door). Accuracy pit. Canteen, showers, washing and toilet
facilities. Tents and caravans on DZ. B&B local.

Border Parachute Centre
Tim Andrewes
Brunton Airfield,
Northumberland NE67 5ER
Tel: 01665 589000

On Northumbrian coast (area of outstanding natural beauty) ideal for
combining a family holiday. Cessna 207, Cherokee 6 and Reims Rocket.
Canteen on DZ, bar, restaurant and great accommodation centre, 3
miles. Open Friday afternoons and weekends. Rounds, RAPS, Tandem, AFF,

British Parachute School
The Control Tower
Langar Airfield
Tel:/Fax: 01949 60878

Large airfield only used for parachuting, with unlimited altitude.
Open every day. Visitors welcome. Static line round and square
courses. AFF, Tandem and WARP. Progression encouraged. Porter, Cessna
206, Islander and Turbolet (Big, fast, seatbelts fitted and available
all summer).

British Skysports, Bridlington
Dave or Nick Johnston
East Leys Farm,
E.  Yorkshire YO16 4YB
Tel: 01262 677367 or 0836 276188

7 days. RAPS, Tandem, AFF WARP, CRW. Cessna 206 and 182, Advanced
rigger. Camping Showers

Cornwall Parachute Centre
Frans Ranch
Old Naval Airfield
St Merryn
Tel: 01841 540691

A different kind of skydiving centre! Cleanest and friendliest centre
around. Emphasis on having fun and learning. C128 with inflight door,
unrestricted altitude, static line squares, R.W. instruction under
the Kinesthesia program, creepers, video facilities, all types of
jumping, including RW & freestyle, good jump prices. Everyone welcome,
local accommodation available.

Devon and Somerset Parachute School
30 Tower Way
Nr Honiton
Tel: 01404 891690

Part time club based at Dunkeswell airfield. Running 1st jump static
line courses, Tandem, AFF courses with very experienced instructors
who have been running AFF at Dunkeswell for 5 years. Student radios,
reserves with AADs. Local accomodation available. Meals available on
airfield as well as a bar.

[This is the same place as the Royal Naval & Royal Marines Sports
parachute Association (RN&RMSPA). Beautiful countryside, great local
pub. See comments on RN&RMSPA -  Pete]

Eaglescott Parachute Centre
Eaglescott Airfield
Devon EX18 7PH
Tel: 01769 560726 or 01769 520552

Open every weekend and also weekdays by arrangement. Friendly small
club atmosphere with emphasis on safety. All students equipped with
AADs, helmet radios, and GQ Aeroconicals. RW, CRW, Style and Accuracy
pit. Tents and caravans on the DZ. Local B&&B. If it windy, you can
always go surfing! New RAPS equipment.

Headcorn Parachute Centre
Headcorn Airfield
Kent    TN27 9HX
Tel: 01622 890 862

Fulltime 9 to dusk, very active midweek. All levels of instruction /
progression. Tandem, AFF, RAPS, Rounds, WARP, Accuracy, two Islanders
- Free accomodation. Cafeteria run by skydivers, parachute club shop
on site. Competitions, lots of fun, everyone welcome.

Ipswich Parachute Centre
Ipswich Airport
Nacton Road
Suffolk IP3 9QF
Tel:01473 710044
DZ (Chatteris) 01354 740114

Now operating at Chatteris for students only. Courses weekends and
Thursday/Friday as required. For DZ details see North London Parachute

Rigging services are still available at Ipswich Airport for the time

London Parachute School
P.O. Box 18
Goring on Thames
Reading RG8 9EW
Tel: 01249 651909 DZ
     (Weekends) 0860 559112

Weekend club: beginners courses and progression training. Farmland
DZ. B&B available locally. Aeroconicals, radios, boots and helmets
loaned free. All welcome at small but friendly club. Please telephone
beforehand for weekend activity.

[DZ is at Lewknor, just off the M40]

Merlin Parachute Centre
Alanbrooke Barracks Topcliffe,
Near Thirsk
North Yorkshire
Tel: Weekends 01748 875367
     Weekdays 01274 631044

Open every weekend and bank holiday. Beginners courses, excellent
student progression, student radios, AADs, boots and helmets. Tandem,
WARP, AFF, RW/CRW instruction and air to air video available. Purpose
built training areas, toilet and canteen facilities. accuracy pit and
Islander aircraft. Friendly atmosphere, non members made very
welcome. B&B and free camping off site.

Midlands Parachute Centre - CLOSED 1st MAY 1997
The Control Tower,
Windrush Camp,
Nr Burford,
Oxfordshire OX18 4TW
Tel: Weekends 0451 844422 or 844449
     Weekdays/fax 01787 461621

Skydive MPC. Great weekend club. Static line, tandem and WARP.
Bunkhouse and showers, and cafe all on airfield. Camping but no

North London Parachute Centre
Chatteris Airfield
Mount Pleasant Farm
CCI Micky Collins
Tel 01354 740810

Weekend DZ, piston Islander. Student and experienced jumpers.

Head from Chatteris toward March and turn right near Doddington, then
right again down a small road. Watch for signs.

Airwaves also use this DZ - 01322 557375

North West Parachute Centre
Cark Airfield
Nr Grange-over-Sands
Tel: Airfield 015395 58672/58555
     Weekdays 01787 461621
http://www.dragonfire.net/~thedropzone/nwpc/nwpc.htm (suspended)

In fabulous lakeland scenery. RW, CRW, WARP, Kit Hire, BN Islander,
bunk house, showers, etc. Camping on airfield, visitors welcome open
weekends and bank holidays mostly.

Oxon and Northants Parachute Centre
Mike Bolton
Hinton-in-the-hedges Airfield
Steane, Nr. Brackley
Northants NN13 5NS
Tel: Office 01384 393373
     Mobile 0850 762349

Situated off A422 between Banbury and Brackley. Open every Weekend,
midweek evenings during BST months. Beginners S/L courses, radios,
freefall progression, kit hire, C182 and C206.

Peterborough Parachute Centre
Sibson Airfield
Peterborough PE8 6NE
Tel: 01832 280490
Fax: 01832 280409
web: http://www.skynet.co.uk/~icarus/

Tuesday to Sunday from 0800hr. Islander C206 + large turbine a/c during
the summer. AFF, WARP, Tandem. Bunkhouse accommodation, free camping,
bar, food. UNRESTRICTED ALTITUDE, Unrivalled experience.

Shotton Colliery Airfield
Co. Durham DH6 2NF
Tel: 0191 5171234 / 0191 3865315

Shotton Colliery Airfield, 2 miles west of Peterlee Flyover
intersection. Open daily up to 8:30 pm. Beginners, Tandem, WARP, CRW,
canteen, toilets and indoor packing facilities.

Royal Air Force Sports Parachute Association (RAFSPA)
Nr. Bicester
Tel:    01869 343343
web:    http://www.skydive.demon.co.uk/ (unofficial)

Turbine Islander, C206, Occasional Skyvan. Showers, bar, canteen,
camping. RAPS, AFF, WARP.

Royal Naval & Royal Marine Sports Parachute Association (RN & RM SPA)
The Old Control Tower
Dunkeswell Airfield
Tel: 01404 891697 / 891716

Islander and Cessna 185 both with in flight doors. 1st jump courses,
S/L rounds, AADs, radios, WARP, RW. Good partying, great local pub,
beautiful countryside. Free camping.

Skydive Scotland
The Parachute Centre
Errol Airfield
Grange Errol
Perthshire PH2 7TB
Tel: 01821 642881 (Office)
     01382 360664 (Airfield)

Weekends. Rounds RAPS AFF WARP CRW Tandem. Islander and C207.
Canteen, dormitories, showers and camping.

Skydive Strathallan
Scotty Milne
Strathallan Airfield
Nr Auchterarder
Perthshire      PH3 1LA
Tel 01764 62572 (Weekends)
web:    http://www.tardis.ed.ac.uk/~kish/strathallan.html

Over thirty years of skydiving in Scotland. Open weekends and Friday
evenings. C206/207. WARP, RW, CRW, Style. Accuracy (pit and electronic
pad) air to air video. Canteen, lounge, video room, shop. Good camping,
B&B nearby.

Stirling Parachute Centre
Nr. Stirling   FK8 3QT
Tel: 01786 870788
Fax: 01786 870748

Full parachute training facility set in spectacular scenery.
Convenient for both Glasgow and Edinburgh, and easily reached off the
M9. Beginners courses run midweek and weekends. Progression from
first jump to experienced free fall, RW, WARP, CRW, Tandem. Lecture
rooms, indoor training and packing facilities. Camping available, B&B

Target Skysports Parachute Club
Hibaldstow Airfield
Hibaldstow Brigg
South Humberside
Tel:    0113 250 5600
        DZ 01652 648837

Open Wed, Fri, Sat, Sun & Bank Holidays - other weekdays by
arrangement. 1st jump static line courses, tandem jumps, excellent
student progression - WARP, RW, CRW, and AFF instruction. Radio
helmets, AADs student and experienced kit hire, Cafe, toilet and
shower facilities, accommodation, caravanning and camping. Twin Dornier,
C206, Cherokee VI and Piper Lance. Competitive jump prices, everyone
welcome. Unrestricted altitude.

The Parachute Centre
Tilstock Airfield
Tel:    01948 841111
email:  skydive@tilstock.demon.co.uk
web:    http://www.tilstock.demon.co.uk

Open Saturdays and most Fridays (phone first) 8:30 until 21:00. No
Sunday operation due to local planning restrictions. Easy to find on the
A41, 3 miles South of Whitchurch. S?L round, Tandem, AFF, RAPS, FS &CF
coaching. Cessna 206 with in-flight door to 10,000'. Clubhouse with
canteen and showers. Accommodation available. Good vibes with a friendly
atmosphere. Everybody is welcome and nobody has to get up early on

West Wilts Parachute Club
John Davis
24 Turners Lane
Wilts SN16 9EN

Tel: 01666 577756

Ex Badminton Parachute Club

Wild Geese Skydiving Centre
Maggie Penny
Movenis Airfield
116 Carrowreagh Rd
N.Ireland        BT51 5LQ
DZ             Tel: 012665 58609         Fax: 012665 57050

Open 7 days a week. Accommodation for 36, hot showers, full catering.
Camping welcome. Daily student courses - full indoor training -
training to Cat 10, RW and CRW instruction. S/L square courses, AFF,
Tandem jumping and Display Team. Kit hire, AADs, radios, Air to air
video and large accuracy pit with competition pad. Cessna 206 and
Pilatus Porter.


British Collegiate Parachute Association
77 Trafford Road
Gt. Manchester
M30 0JT
(0161) 950 9095

Cyprus Combined Services Parachute Club
CJSATC Pergamos Camp, BFPO 58
Tel: +357 47 44337 (Office)
     +357 47 44245 (DZ)

[Skydive in the morning, laze on the beach in the afternoon, party at
night .. it's a hard life. - Pete]

[Accommodation can be had at the Sussex Pub - discounts to
parachutists and convenient for the DZ:

        Sussex Hotel Apartments
        PO Box 289
        Dhekelia Road
        Tel:    Office  +357 4 644811/1
                Home    +357 4 644698
                Fax     +357 4 631779

POPS UK (Parachutists over Phorty Society)
Sue Hill
Hon. Sec. POPS UK
40 The Hamlet,
St Annes
Lancashire FY8 3LE

Tel:   01253 713841
email: popsuk@bigfoot.com
web:   http://www.pops.org.uk

(Rhine Army Parachute Association)
33175 Bad Lippspringe,
Tel:    +49 05254 98 2378 or 2740
Fax:    +49 05254 87456

Joint Services Parachute Centre, Hong Kong
Borneo Lines,
Shek Kong
NT Hong Kong
Tel: +852 483 7221
Fax: +852 4889341



All information provided herein is offered on an "as is" basis.  There
is no warranty expressed or implied concerning its applicability or
fitness for any particular purpose.  Consult a trained professional
before attempting any of the activities described in this document; it
is not intended to be a substitute for proper professional instruction.

          --------      End                  -------
          Rec.Skydiving F.A.Q. Sheet (United Kingdom)

Pete Shew
pete at shew dot clara dot net (apologies but I hate spam)

Last-modified: Mon, 14 Feb 2000 17:25:45 GMT